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Documents and Papers


This page contains general text resources for RTSJ.


Book References

First Author Date

Web site for Concurrent and Real-Time Programming in Java (Click on the image of the book to go to the book's page on Amazon. There you can "search inside the book.")

Andy Wellings 10/28/2004
Unofficial PDF version of RTSJ 1.0.2. It should be nearly identical to the HTML version with some added resources, but if they disagree the HTML version is the version of the spec filed with the JCP and so is the official version.
RTSJ TIC 7/12/2006

Real-Time Java Platform Programming Second Edition. (Click on the image of the book to go to the book's page on Amazon. There you can "search inside the book.") Here's more material.

Sample Tutorial -- Updated June 2008

Peter Dibble 6/19/2008


Real-Time Java Programming: With Java RTS. (Click on the image of the book to go to the book's page on Amazon.)

This book is focused on developers using Sun's Java RTS implementation of the RTSJ, but much of the book is a good general introduction to the RTSJ.

It includes a detailed treatment of the real-time garbage collector used in Sun's RTSJ implementation.

Where most writing about the RTSJ assumes the target will be embedded systems, this book assumes large financial applications.

Eric Bruno and Greg Bollella 6/15/2009

Article References

First Author Date
Article: Real-Time Java: An Introduction

"I've worked in investment banking for several years and my experience suggests that most problems in financial software arise from the lack of real-time support. "

Peter Mikhalenko 5/10/2006
Interview with Greg Bollella.

Quote from interview: "Start using RTSJ and see how simple it is. Get an edge up in many industries because for a large number of applications, it's becoming a required skill."

Greg Bollella 4/6/2006
Article: Sporadic Scheduling Peter Dibble 7/9/2005
Article: OS Support for RTSJ Peter Dibble 5/22/2005
Article: Ramblings on Garbage Collection Peter Dibble 5/15/2005
RTSJ for Windows CE.

"The RTSJ for Wince project is currently in the planning stage and as a development schedule is formulated it will be posted."


IBM's Technical Articles about RTSJ

This is a series of articles about using Java and RTSJ for real-time applications.

The above link, courtesy of International Business Machines Corporation copyright © International Business Machines Corporation.

Varies: all from IBM Ottawa Lab Starting in 4/2007

Getting Real

"You should take several messages away from this paper:

1.       When missed deadlines are acceptable, an application can improve its real-time performance on a regular JVM by managing garbage collection and using a sporadic server.

2.       The supporting operating system is an important factor in real-time performance.

3.       A JVM needs priority scheduling to support real-time performance, and Java platforms have serious problems with priority scheduling that are hard to fix without something like the RTSJ."

Peter Dibble 7/15/2007
Eric Bruno's Java RTS Primer Eric Bruno 6/2/2009

Fireability Vs. Pinning

Should RTSJ be changed to stop maintaining the contents of an async event handler's scoped non-default initial memory area across releases? Does RTSJ 1.1's proposed pinning facility obsolete this behavior?

Peter Dibble 10/13/2009
Real-Time Java Adaptation: Part 1 -- What is Real-Time Java and what are its major advantages and disadvantages. Deniz Oguz 11/14/2009
This is a JTRES-09 paper about FijiVM Filip Pizlo Sept 2009
Hober and Elzer from Millersville University write Does the Real-Time Java Specification Form a Viable Real-Time Programming Language? I don't know if or when it was published...other than on the web. On the whole, they don't seem pleased with the RTSJ, but their critism is interesting. David Hober 7 April 2008

Academic References

First Author Date
JTRES-09 conference program with slides from several talks. JTRES-09 9/24/2009
Paper: Static determination of allocation rates to support real-time garbage collection Tobias Mann 6/15/2005
Masters thesis on static determination of allocation rates to support garbage collection. Tobias Mann May 2005
Paper: A Real-Time RMI Framework for the RTSJ by Borg and Wellings

"This paper describes a Real-Time RMI (RT-RMI) framework
that supports timely invocation of remote objects."

Andrew Borg 2003
Paper: The Metronome: A Simpler Approach to Garbage Collection in RTSJ

"In recent work we have shown that it is possible to build a real-time collector for Java with highly regular CPU utilization and greatly reduced memory footprint."

David Bacon 2003
Paper: Efficient Memory-Reference Checks for Real-time Java

"In this paper we present efficient algorithms for managing scoped
memories and the checks they impose on programs."

Angelo Corsaro 2003


First Author Date
List: No-heap Safe classes Peter Dibble 10/6/2004
List: Non-allocating methods Peter Dibble 9/19/2004

ATL QoS Homepage

"The overall goal of our work is to systematically measure average and worst case latencies for exchange of "n" bytes of data (raw bytes, structures, etc.) between two processes by a variety of techniques including shared memory, sockets, RMI, CORBA, EJB, CCM, databases, etc. etc. etc. This data permits, we hope, to form an understanding of costs (and benefits) of these various abstractions and technologies used to implement them."

Gautam Thaker


The Java Posse interviews (podcast) Dave Hofert and Greg Bollella about Sun's Java Real-Time System 2.0 David Hofert 5/26/2007
Steve Haines interviews Dr. David Holmes about the RTSJ. David Holmes is famous for many things, but in this community he's known as a long-time member of the RTSJ TIC and Expert Group, a former member of the OVM implementation team, and currently a member of Sun's Java RTS team. David Holmes 6/1/2009
This web site is about a DARPA grand challenge car that uses RTSJ control code. It looks like the work of University of Virginia and Perrone Robotics.   June 2007
Slides for an ISORC-11 talk, Simplifying the Dualized Threading Model of RTSJ. The slides are dated later than the conference, so perhaps they are a revised version. Pablo Basanta-Val Oct 2009

Peter's notebook.